DGAP POLICY BRIEF 28. November 2019
Sofia Koller und Alexander Ritzmann
Freiheitliche Demokratien sind fragil und von innen leicht angreifbar. Polarisierung, Radikalisierung und Terrorismus sind eng verwoben und die Digitalisierung gibt der politischen Gewalt eine weitere Dimension. Rückkehrer aus Syrien und dem Irak stellen eine neue Herausforderung dar. Wie groß die Sorge ist, Rückkehrer könnten in Europa Anschläge verüben, wird auch an der Diskussion über die IS-Anhänger deutscher Staatsbürgerschaft deutlich, die derzeit von der Türkei nach Deutschland abgeschoben werden.
„GIZ cannot not work on PVE“ – so die Ansicht von Alexander Ritzmann, Autor der Studie „Prevention of Violent Extremism (PVE) – Methods, Approaches and Potential for GIZ Governance Interventions in the Middle East and North Africa” (link). Die Studie wurde vom GIZ-Fachverbund Governance in der MENA-Region (Go-MENA) in Auftrag gegeben. Der Fachverbund ging der Frage nach, welche Rolle die GIZ, und insbesondere ihre Governance-Programme, im Bereich Extremismusprävention spielen können, denn Terrorismus und gewaltsamer Extremismus bedrohen die Sicherheit und Stabilität vieler Partnerländer.
Johannes Baldauf, Julia Ebner und Jakob Guhl (Hrsg.)
Vorwort von Prof. Dr. Peter Neumann
Mit Beiträgen von
Alexander Ritzmann (Seite 11)
Prof. Dr. Christian Montag
Dr. Matthias Quent
Senior Policy Advisor. European Foundation for Democracy. Co-chair of the European Commission’s Radicalisation Awareness Network (RAN) Communication and Narratives (C&N) Working Group
The 8th Euromed Survey conducted by the European Institute of the Mediterranean touches upon a number of important and complex issues related to violent extremism in the EuroMediterranean region, including the question of the context and drivers through which violent extremism can prosper. Echoing some of the results, this article looks into propaganda as a tool of extremist ideologies and how to counter it.
What is Propaganda?
Propaganda, as a tool of extremist ideologies, aims to generate and promote a world view that reduces the complexity of life to a simple black and white picture. This structured attempt to reform the cognitive (and emotional) perceptions of a target audience to initiate an action in the interest of the propagandist has probably been a part of every political or religious conflict (Jowett, 2012).
In 1622, when the Catholic Church professionalised its missionary work to counter the progress of the Protestants, the body responsible for this important endeavour was called “Sacra Congregatio de propaganda fide”, which gave the name to what since then has been called propaganda. Over the conflict of what true Christianity is, Catholics regarded propaganda as something positive, while Protestants saw it as a tool of the enemy (Bussmer, 2013).
Propaganda, in the form of recruitment messaging, generally follows the pattern of diagnosis (what is wrong), prognosis (what needs to be done) and rationale (who should do it and why) (Wilson, 1973). The self-proclaimed Islamic State (IS/Daesh), for example, follows the same principle: diagnosis (Islam/Sunni Muslims are under attack), prognosis (fight/create the Caliphate) and rationale (help however you can).
The IS then uses sub-narratives for every target group they want to reach (Neumann, 2015). Adventure-seeking young men were promised a future as heroes who are fighting for a just cause and who would be rewarded, amongst other things, with wives and sex slaves. Medical doctors and engineers were lured in by the call to helping fellow Sunni Muslims in need and to being part of the creation of the perfect Islamic utopian society, the Caliphate. Young women were promised an important role by becoming the wives of the “lions of the Caliphate” and securing its future by raising their “cubs” (Winter, 2015).
How Does Propaganda Work?
Extremist propaganda often has clear-cut messages that promise clarity, relevance and meaning in addition to emotional and social benefits, such as belonging to a new family or brotherhood/sisterhood. For propaganda to increase its chances of success, it needs to be close to an already existing (perceived) truth of the targeted audience. 180-degree conversions happen but very rarely.Weiterlesen »
Webinar-Aufzeichnung (Link zum Video)
Referent/innen: Alexander Ritzmann und Julia Ebner
„Inhalt: Soziale Medien sind heute ein fester Bestandteil des Lebens von vielen Menschen. Informationen sind kein Gut von Zeitungen, Radio und Fernsehen mehr. Sie fließen über Facebook, werden über Twitter und WhatsApp rasend schnell verbreitet und über Youtube mit bewegten Bildern unterlegt – jeder hat von fast überall Zugriff und kann selbst Nachrichten verbreiten. Auch Extremisten nutzen soziale Medien, um für sich zu werben und junge Menschen zu radikalisieren. Welche Rolle Soziale Medien bei der Radikalisierung spielen und wie sie auch von Kommunen für die Prävention von Extremismus genutzt werden können beleuchten Alexander Ritzmann (European Foundation for Democracy, Co-Vorsitzender der RAN working group on communication and narratives) und Julia Ebner (Institute for Strategic Dialogue).
Das Deutsch-Europäische Forum für urbane Sicherheit (DEFUS) und das Institut für angewandte Präventionsforschung des Deutschen Präventionstages (dpt-i) bieten gemeinsam eine Webinarreihe an, die die unterschiedlichen Facetten des Themenkomplexes Extremismus und Radikalisierung beleuchten.“
Alexander Ritzmann addressed the EuroMeSCo Annual Conference in Barcelona on 1-2 June. The conference gathered senior policymakers and researchers to discuss violent extremism in the Euro-Mediterranean region, its manifestations, drivers, impact and how it can be curbed.
On 22nd March 2017, the anniversary of the 2016 Brussels attacks provided an occasion to discuss measures to prevent similar tragedies: the European Policy Centre (EPC), in partnership with the European Foundation for Democracy (EFD) and the Counter Extremism Project (CEP) presented the final publication of The challenges of jihadist radicalisation in Europe and beyond, a research and event project.
Alexander speaks starting minute 33.
Today’s anniversary of the terror attacks in Brussels on 22 March 2016 provides a perfect opportunity to reflect on the challenge posed by jihadist radicalisation and the need for effective prevention policies across Europe, write Alexander Ritzmann and Andrea Frontini.
Decades of research on the root-causes of terrorism have produced inconclusive results. Radicalisation, a dramatic change in thinking and behaviour leading to (violent) extremism, is best described as an individual pathway, with medical doctors and engineers joining terrorist groups, along with petty criminals and poor and uneducated people. Most extremists are young men, although the number and role of women in terrorism has increased in recent years, including among those leaving to Syria and Iraq.
This puts policy makers in Europe under severe pressure. Where should thin public budgets be allocated to tackle this challenge? Should it be in better schools and education, more social workers and integration programmes, further sports and recreational activities for vulnerable youth, or bigger police, intelligence and surveillance?
While all these policy fields are important, priorities must be identified, based on which policies promise the best return for the short and longer-term security of citizens and societies at large.
Club de Madrid: „Alexander Ritzmann, has answered our PVE questionaire.
In it, he stresses the need for a critical evaluation of hard security measures implemented in the last years as they might be having a counterproductive effect. In this Q&A he also advocates for prevention policies and programmes and new narratives in all levels “highlighting role models and positive stories of citizens who achieved something while coming from difficult backgrounds”.
Club de Madrid: Why is now more important than ever to put the emphasis in the prevention agenda to tackle the violent extremism threat?
Alexander Ritzmann: Hard security measures like police investigations and arrests, surveillance by intelligence agencies and military engagement in different conflict zones, are still the preferred means to implement security policies in the EU.
A critical evaluation of these important, yet one-sided approaches shows, however, that none of the security risks related to radicalization and terrorism have been significantly reduced in the last 15 years. In some cases, this focus on hard measures might even have fostered radicalization.
Propaganda, the art of twisting information to make it fit your interests or ideology, always plays a role. Extremists are often attracted by the clear cut messages that can give simple meaning to an otherwise complex life. Extremist narratives aim to generate a world view where everything is black and white, where one is either in or out of a group. And they promise emotional and social benefits such as belonging to a new family or brotherhood in the fight for a supposedly just cause.
Propaganda is effective when it is close to a perceived truth of the targeted audience. Ideology, whether for white supremacists or Islamists, plays a key role in legitimising the strategies and actions of the extremists which would otherwise simply be criminal acts. In some cases, ideology makes the difference between someone committing suicide or driving a truck into a group of people.