CEP-Studie: „Wo Wölfe Kreide fressen – Die rechtsextreme Infrastruktur auf Facebook, Instagram, YouTube und Twitter“

Alexander Ritzmann, November 2021


Im Rahmen dieses CEP Recherche- und Analyseprojektes wurde eine Bestandausnahme der relevantesten Akteur:innen des Rechtsextremismus in Deutschland durchgeführt. Anhand von Kriterien wie der Anzahl und Relevanz von Aktivitäten wurden insgesamt 100 Personen, Organisationen, Musiklabels, Bands, Modemarken und Unternehmen als rechtsextreme Schlüsselakteur:innen identifiziert.


Accelerationists (who want to instigate a race war to bring down liberal democracies), saw the COVID-19 pandemic, the different health related measures and restrictions, and the surrounding fear, confusion and criticism as an opportunity to benefit from the resulting societal polarisation. Fortunately, their apocalyptic narratives seem to have found
little to no relevant support beyond already affected RWE milieus.

September 2021

Alexander Ritzmann

Linkt to RAN Spotlight Magazine (P. 14)

Reporting about Violent Extremism and P/CVE Challenges for Journalists – Recommendations from Practitioners, August 2021 (RAN Paper)

Authored by Alexander Ritzmann and Fabian Wichmann

Download paper

Reporting about extremism and terrorism poses major challenges for journalists on different levels. This paper will address some of the most relevant challenges by introducing key insights and recommendations on how to follow a “do no harm” approach when informing the public, and particularly when reporting about violence.

The role of civil society organisations working on P/CVE will also be highlighted. According to EU law, terrorist offences are acts committed with the aim of:

  • seriously intimidating a population;
  • unduly compelling a government or international organisation to perform or abstain from performing any act;
  • seriously destabilising or destroying the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an international organisation.

Terrorism is the most extreme form of communication. It could be described as a deadly performance that aims at drawing attention to the political messages of the perpetrators by violently and publicly harming their victims. Terrorism is therefore even more about propaganda and manipulation than it is about the violent act itself. Put differently, without detailed media coverage about a terrorist attack, there might be no international terrorism, just local violence.

Podcast: Social media?! Why is their content moderation so bad? How come big tech are not liable for the harm they are doing? And can the EU DSA fix this?

Link to podcast

In today’s podcast, Lucinda Creighton was joined by CEP Senior Adviser Alexander Ritzmann to discuss internet regulation and extremist content online while particularly focussing on the DSA. Alexander Ritzmann advises the Counter Extremism Project (CEP) Berlin on internet regulation, including the NetzDG, Artificial Intelligence/Transparency, and the EU Digital Services Act as well as on the effective countering of extremist/terrorist actors and content online. 

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The Globalization of Far-Right Extremism: An Investigative Report (CTC Sentinal)


Weblink to article

Abstract: The fact that right-wing extremists are cooperating internationally more than ever today is a reality recognized by most researchers and government officials. This article describes some of the mechanisms that are fueling this development. The main finding is that right-wing extremists today, in many cases, no longer subscribe to the narrow concept of nationalism but instead imagine themselves as participants in a global struggle against a global enemy. Consequently, networking and cooperating across borders is seen as a necessity. This process is further supported by shared ideological writings, technological advancement, and the conflict in Ukraine, which has served as a powerful accelarator.

„In recent years, analysts and security institutions alike have pointed out that right-wing extremists are increasingly networking across borders and even continents. “Right-wing extremists maintain international links and mutual exchange and are influenced by key treatises and emblematic personalities worldwide,” Europol stated in its 2020 Terrorism Situation and Trend Report.1 The Counter Extremism Project (CEP), in a study funded by Germany’s foreign office, concluded in November 2020 that “the 21st century, and the period after 2014 in particular, saw the emergence of a new leaderless, transnational and apocalyptic violent extreme right-wing (XRW) movement.”2 „


In the past, explains extremism expert Alexander Ritzmann, right-wing extremists were focused on the fight for their own country. Today, though, the focus has shifted to the defense of the “white race.”17 So whether it is American neo-Nazis concerned about the growth of the non-white share of the population or European right-wing extremists who believe in the theory of “the great replacement”g or Russian ultra-nationalists who feel that their traditional “white” culture is being threatened by Western multiculturalism, gay rights, and the like, many have come to the same conclusion: that they need to defend themselves, that it might be useful to cooperate in order to do so, and that the means by which this conflict will be resolved will be a civil war-like scenario just like the one Mason has been propagating, except that it is envisaged as a global, transnational conflict.


Will The EU Digital Services Act (DSA) Make Social Media Safer For Their Users ? (Paper and Video)

Mai 2021: CEP Policy Paper: “EU Commission consultation – Digital Services Act package – ex ante regulatory instrument of very large online platforms acting as gatekeepers”

Authors: Alexander Ritzmann (CEP Senior Advisor), Dr. Hans-Jakob Schindler (CEP Senior Director) and Lucinda Creighton (CEP Senior Europe Advisor)


Video (YouTube)

The current draft DSA is based on a set of narratives about the role, function and business models of so-called gatekeeper platforms that do not seem to adequately reflect their actual functionality and commercial purpose. This paper will therefore those systemic misunderstandings and provide an alternative narrative that might help to build the internet and intermediary services the EU is actually aiming for.

Violent Right-Wing Extremism And Terrorism – Towards a common international understanding and shared legal concepts – Insights from Germany (Video)

Alexander Ritzmann

Link to video

This virtual conference organized by CEP on behalf of the German Foreign Office aimed to explore this issue in greater depth. The event highlighted a range of instruments governments have found useful in countering the domestic threat posed by violent right-wing extremism and terrorism. It discussed how developing a common conceptual understanding of the terrorist nature of networks within these wider transnational movements could open up the possibility to use already developed multilateral legal, administrative and operational structures, as well as instruments and mechanisms to mitigate terrorist threats.

The conference was organized in the framework of Germany’s chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. Member States had the opportunity to exchange information on their already existing mechanisms and discuss which counterterrorism instruments may be already applicable to this threat and which may need further modification.

LONE (terrorist) ACTORS IN DIGITAL ENVIRONMENTS (RAN Spotlight magzine)

May 12, 2021

By Alexander Ritzmann

Weblink to RAN Spotlight magazine / VoxPol blog article

The Halle attacker – who killed two people, injured two and aimed at killing dozens more at a Synagogue on 9 October 2019 – was inspired and motivated by online manifestos. In addition, he streamed his attack online and posted his own manifesto online, too. His attack has been marked as a typical ‘lone actor’ attack.

‘Lone wolves’, ‘lone actors’, ‘solo terrorists’, ‘loners’, ‘lone attackers’ – all definitions suggest a single individual, finding his or her way into an extremist ideology without affiliating to a group or network and operating on their own. However, most of the so-called ‘lone actors’ who carry out attacks subscribed to certain narratives and unorganised collectives. These collectives are leaderless and without clear hierarchies, but their followers are connected and united by shared narratives, values and enemies. For example, during his trial, the Halle shooter said that he did not join any group since he thought they would all be under surveillance. But he made clear that he feels like a soldier fighting for the “white race”.

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„Extremistische und jugendgefährdende Inhalte online – Kann der EU Digital Services Act Nutzer:innen wirksam schützen?“ (Video)

Video: EU Digital Services Act: Einschätzungen, Vorschläge und Fragen | Alexander Ritzmann – CEP

Das Counter Extremism Project (CEP) und Das NETTZ luden zu einem digitalen Fachgespräch zum Thema „Extremistische und jugendgefährdende Inhalte online – Kann der EU Digital Services Act Nutzer:innen wirksam schützen?“ ein, das am 15. April 2021 stattfand.

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Civil Society Empowerment Programme (CSEP) – Peer learning sessions and key findings

Alexander Ritzmann

Radicalisation Awareness Network (RAN) / CONCLUSION PAPER (download)

RAN hosted two digital sessions that aimed at facilitating peer to peer learning amongst the 20 CSEP projects, which all received EU funding to conduct P/CVE alternative or counter narrative campaigns. During these sessions, the projects were asked to demonstrate to their peers what they had learned and how they overcame challenges relating to their campaign activities. Although the projects have a shared framework, there is significant degree of variation amongst them. Some focus on videos, others use online games or workshops or a combination of different tools and formats. The RAN facilitated this sharing of insights by creating a digital safe space which allowed for all participating projects to openly share good and less successful practices. This paper captures the most common challenges faced by the projects and their lessons learned to help other civil society organisations
benefit from the learnings of the CSEP projects when creating alternative or counter narrative campaigns.
Some of the key learnings were:
• Develop an evidence-based “theory of change” that serves as a formative road map for the project
activities. See your project as a “change journey”, stay flexible and adjust when needed.
• Involve representatives of your target audiences or work closely with partners who have an in-depth
understanding of them. Co-create, this will help you identify what is important to your target audiences, the
online platforms they use and the authorities/influencers they listen to.
• Consider using an external facilitator who helps building a shared understanding of the key elements of
your activities when working with a team with diverse professional backgrounds. Don´t automatically expect
everyone to see things the same way.
• Ensure the safety