PROPAGANDA: WIRKUNG, GRENZEN UND GEGENMASSNAHMEN (Interventionen -Zeitschrift für Verantwortungspädagogik)

Interventionen. 09-10 | 2017, Seite 4-9.

Propaganda:  Wirkung, Grenzen und Gegenmaßnahmen

Die Manipulation von Informationen war schon immer ein wichtiges Werkzeug im Streit um die vermeintliche Wahrheit.

Die katholische Kirche beispielweise professionalisierte ihre Missionstätigkeit im Jahre 1622, um der protestantischen Reformation besser entgegenwirken zu können und bezeichnete dies als Propaganda. Als Konsequenz war die „Sacra Congregatio de propaganda fide” bei Katholiken positiv, bei Protestanten negativ besetzt (Bussemer 2013).

Der Versuch, „Wahrnehmungen zu gestalten, Kognitionen (und Emotionen) zu manipulieren und Verhalten zu lenken, um eine Reaktion im Sinne des Propagandisten zu erzielen“ (Jowett 2012), gehört seitdem unter diesem Namen zu jedem politischen und religiösen Konflikt.

Als systematisch geplante Massenkommunikation will Propaganda nicht nur informieren und argumentieren, sie soll überzeugen und überreden. Beim Empfänger soll eine neue „Wahrheit“, ein neuer Deutungsrahmen zur Einordnung von Ereignissen und Themen in die jeweilige Ideologie oder Religion geschaffen werden.

Aber kann man Menschen zum „Glauben“ überreden? Die Wirksamkeit von Propaganda ist umstritten. Klar ist, dass Akteure in politischen oder religiösen Konflikten der Propaganda große Wichtigkeit beimessen und signifikante Ressourcen dafür aufwenden.Weiterlesen »



Senior Policy Advisor. European Foundation for Democracy. Co-chair of the European Commission’s Radicalisation Awareness Network (RAN) Communication and Narratives (C&N) Working Group

The 8th Euromed Survey conducted by the European Institute of the Mediterranean touches upon a number of important and complex issues related to violent extremism in the EuroMediterranean region, including the question of the context and drivers through which violent extremism can prosper. Echoing some of the results, this article looks into propaganda as a tool of extremist ideologies and how to counter it.
What is Propaganda?
Propaganda, as a tool of extremist ideologies, aims to generate and promote a world view that reduces the complexity of life to a simple black and white picture. This structured attempt to reform the cognitive (and emotional) perceptions of a target audience to initiate an action in the interest of the propagandist has probably been a part of every political or religious conflict (Jowett, 2012).
In 1622, when the Catholic Church professionalised its missionary work to counter the progress of the Protestants, the body responsible for this important endeavour was called “Sacra Congregatio de propaganda fide”, which gave the name to what since then has been called propaganda. Over the conflict of what true Christianity is, Catholics regarded propaganda as something positive, while Protestants saw it as a tool of the enemy (Bussmer, 2013).

Propaganda, in the form of recruitment messaging, generally follows the pattern of diagnosis (what is wrong), prognosis (what needs to be done) and rationale (who should do it and why) (Wilson, 1973). The self-proclaimed Islamic State (IS/Daesh), for example, follows the same principle: diagnosis (Islam/Sunni Muslims are under attack), prognosis (fight/create the Caliphate) and rationale (help however you can).
The IS then uses sub-narratives for every target group they want to reach (Neumann, 2015). Adventure-seeking young men were promised a future as heroes who are fighting for a just cause and who would be rewarded, amongst other things, with wives and sex slaves. Medical doctors and engineers were lured in by the call to helping fellow Sunni Muslims in need and to being part of the creation of the perfect Islamic utopian society, the Caliphate. Young women were promised an important role by becoming the wives of the “lions of the Caliphate” and securing its future by raising their “cubs” (Winter, 2015).

How Does Propaganda Work?
Extremist propaganda often has clear-cut messages that promise clarity, relevance and meaning in addition to emotional and social benefits, such as belonging to a new family or brotherhood/sisterhood. For propaganda to increase its chances of success, it needs to be close to an already existing (perceived) truth of the targeted audience. 180-degree conversions happen but very rarely.Weiterlesen »

Propaganda: Wirkungen, Grenzen und Gegenmaßnahmen (Video/Webinar)

Webinar-Aufzeichnung  (Link zum Video)

Referent/innen: Alexander Ritzmann und Julia Ebner

„Inhalt: Soziale Medien sind heute ein fester Bestandteil des Lebens von vielen Menschen. Informationen sind kein Gut von Zeitungen, Radio und Fernsehen mehr. Sie fließen über Facebook, werden über Twitter und WhatsApp rasend schnell verbreitet und über Youtube mit bewegten Bildern unterlegt – jeder hat von fast überall Zugriff und kann selbst Nachrichten verbreiten. Auch Extremisten nutzen soziale Medien, um für sich zu werben und junge Menschen zu radikalisieren. Welche Rolle Soziale Medien bei der Radikalisierung spielen und wie sie auch von Kommunen für die Prävention von Extremismus genutzt werden können beleuchten Alexander Ritzmann (European Foundation for Democracy, Co-Vorsitzender der RAN working group on communication and narratives) und Julia Ebner (Institute for Strategic Dialogue).

Das Deutsch-Europäische Forum für urbane Sicherheit (DEFUS) und das Institut für angewandte Präventionsforschung des Deutschen Präventionstages (dpt-i) bieten gemeinsam eine Webinarreihe an, die die unterschiedlichen Facetten des Themenkomplexes Extremismus und Radikalisierung beleuchten.“



Video: „One year after the Brussels attacks: the Challenge of Jihadist Radicalisation“

On 22nd March 2017, the anniversary of the 2016 Brussels attacks provided an occasion to discuss measures to prevent similar tragedies: the European Policy Centre (EPC), in partnership with the European Foundation for Democracy (EFD) and the Counter Extremism Project (CEP) presented the final publication of The challenges of jihadist radicalisation in Europe and beyond, a research and event project.

Alexander speaks starting minute 33.

„One year after the Brussels attacks: How can Europe prevent the next tragedy?“

EURACTIV, March 22, 2017

Today’s anniversary of the terror attacks in Brussels on 22 March 2016 provides a perfect opportunity to reflect on the challenge posed by jihadist radicalisation and the need for effective prevention policies across Europe, write Alexander Ritzmann and Andrea Frontini.

Decades of research on the root-causes of terrorism have produced inconclusive results. Radicalisation, a dramatic change in thinking and behaviour leading to (violent) extremism, is best described as an individual pathway, with medical doctors and engineers joining terrorist groups, along with petty criminals and poor and uneducated people. Most extremists are young men, although the number and role of women in terrorism has increased in recent years, including among those leaving to Syria and Iraq.

This puts policy makers in Europe under severe pressure. Where should thin public budgets be allocated to tackle this challenge? Should it be in better schools and education, more social workers and integration programmes, further sports and recreational activities for vulnerable youth, or bigger police, intelligence and surveillance?

While all these policy fields are important, priorities must be identified, based on which policies promise the best return for the short and longer-term security of citizens and societies at large.

Weiterlesen »

„Preventing radicalisation in schools“

The Parliament Magazine, by Alexandra Korn & Alexander Ritzmann on 9 March 2017

We shouldn’t forget the importance of empowering educators in the fight against radicalisation, argue Alexandra Korn and Alexander Ritzmann.


In schools across the EU, teachers are increasingly facing challenges of integrating students from different cultural backgrounds. Discussions and disagreements linked to political events at home and overseas occasionally meld with broader patriarchal traditions in the classroom.

This interplay increasingly impacts on everyday school life and can jeopardise a pupil’s learning success.

At the same time, issues such as the role of patriarchal traditions and conservative or extremist interpretations of religion (especially Islamism and Salafism) in a 21st century liberal democracy, can be emotionally charged and quickly lead to a sense among educators of being overwhelmed.

Weiterlesen »